Myth Busting the Gender Pay Gap
A senior program advisor at the Department of Labor’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Program details and busts five myths about the gender wage gap.
|2015 – The Gender Wage Gap: 2014 from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research.
|2015 – How the Wage Gap Hurts Women and Their Families from the National Women’s Law Center.
|2015 – Equal Pay Laws State by State from AAUW
|2015 - The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2014 and by Race and Ethnicity from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research.
2015 - An Unlevel Playing Field: America’s Gender-Based Wage Gap, Binds of Discrimination, And A Path Forward from National Partnership for Women & Families (press release).
|2015 - The Status of Women in the States: Employment and Earnings from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research.
|2015 - The Simple Truth About the Gender Pay Gap from AAUW.
|2015 - The Gender Wage Gap: 2014; Earnings Differences by Race and Ethnicity from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research.
| 2015 - The Gender Wage Gap by State and Congressional District from AAUW
|2015 – State-by-state wage gaps – for women overall. African American women, Latinas, Asian American women from National Women’s Law Center.
|2013 - While occupational choice is said to account for some of the wage gap, studies continue to show women
earning less than men in the same occupations. A report by Guidestar USA shows women earning significantly less than men at nonprofit organizations, as reported by
David Cay Johnston. Johnston's message to married men: "Your working wives are getting shorted on pay and that means your family has less money than it should."
|2013 - The Gender Wage Gap: 2012 from the Institute for Women's Policy Research shows it will take 45 more years to close the gap.
|2013 - The Wage Gap Is Stagnant in the Last Decade from the National Women's Law Center.
|2013 - State-by-State Gender Wage Data: AAUW gender wage gaps by state and Congressional districts.
|2013 - Wage gaps by state and by 50 major metropolitan areas from the National Partnership for Women and Families.
|2013 - Wage gap for women overall and for African American and Hispanic women from the National Women's Law Center.
| 2013 - Advancing Equal Pay Enforcement: More Effective and Transparent Procedures for Investigating Pay Discrimination from OFCCP.
|2012 - Graduating to a Pay Gap by the AAUW reports the gender wage gap a year after graduation from college.
Full report (pdf)
|2012 - The Gender Wage Gap By Occupation from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research shows that women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in nearly all occupations.
|2011 - White House report Women in America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being, addresses women’s present role in family life, education, employment, health, and crime in American society.
|2011 - The American Association of University Women's State Median Annual Earnings and Earnings Ratio by Gender, 2009.
|2011 - Women of Color Policy Network's brief, Wage Disparities and Women of Color.
|2010 - AAUW report "Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics" and wage gaps in those fields.
|2010 - Center for American Progress interactive map shows career wage gaps by state.
|2009 - Analysis by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research shows that women earn less then men, whether they do the same job or different jobs.
|2009 - GAO report "Women's Pay" shows gender wage gap in federal workforce diminishing but still exists.
|2007: Behind the Pay Gap (pdf), by the American Association of University Women, reports the gap exists as early as one year out of college. Press release.
in Women's Collegiate and Professional Sports (pdf), issued by the Women's Sports Foundation. College and professional sports continue to provide unequal
funding for women.
2006: "The Best and Worst State Economies for Women" (pdf), issued by the Institute for Women's Policy Research.
While women's wages have risen in all states, in terms of inflation-adjusted dollars, since 1989, the typical full-time woman worker does not make as much as the typical man in any state. At the present rate of progress, it will take 50 years to close the wage gap nationwide.
|2006: "AAUP Faculty Gender Equity Indicators 2006," a report issued by the American Association of University Professors, shows continuing disparities between male and female faculty, particularly at research universities. It raises questions of why, after 30 years of efforts to provide equitable opportunities for men and women faculty members, there should be any differences in their career outcomes and what can be done to avoid continuing this situation.
| 2006: The Maryland Department of Labor's Report
of the Equal Pay Commission (issued 9/30/06) revealed "wage gaps based on both gender and
race in the State, particularly in the private sector."
The Commission was assisted by the Institute
for Women's Policy Research, which conducted a study
on wage disparities in Maryland. IWPR reported: "More
than one-fifth of the difference in women's and men's
earnings cannot be explained by differences in their education,
potential work experience, job characteristics, or other
2005: The American Association of University Women (AAUW) Educational Foundation reported that nationally, college-educated women earn only 72 percent as much as college-educated men, a wage gap of 28 cents on the dollar. In every state, a persistent and significant gap exists between the earnings of college-educated, full-time working women and college-educated, full-time working men.
The AAUW Educational Foundation’s Gains in Learning, Gaps in Earnings: A Guide to State and National Data is an online resource that examines these discrepancies. It was prepared in partnership with the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR). The resource features:
- An interactive map for all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia showing the earnings ratio between college-educated women and men who work full time, year round
- Detailed reports for four profile states (California, Texas, Michigan, and Georgia) selected to reflect geographic, demographic, and economic diversity
- AAUW’s answers to five frequently asked questions about university and college women
- College degree attainment by race and ethnicity
- An online press kit with links to the report and related AAUW resources.
| 2004: Unequal pay takes
a significant toll on working women and their families,
reports the Institute for Women's Policy Research.
a Man's Labor Market: The Long-Term Earnings Gap"
finds women's total
earnings over their prime working years average
only 38 percent of what prime-age men earn due to
a combination of lower pay, more part-time work
and time out of the workforce to care for children.
The typical prime-age working woman earned $273,592
between 1983 and 1998 while the typical working
man earned $722,693. Press
| 2004: A Census
Bureau report, "Evidence
From Census 2000 About Earnings by Detailed Occupation
for Men and Women," shows men earning more than women in all 20 of the
highest-paid occupations for both sexes as well
as in all 20 of the lowest-paid. Overall, among
full-time, year-round workers, women's median earnings
were 74% of men's, the report shows.
| 2004: The Institute
for Women's Policy Research issued a report on Equal
Pay Day titled Women's
Economic Status in the States: Wide Disparities
by Race, Ethnicity, and Region which shows that
women are paid 68 cents for every dollar white men
2003: The General
Accounting Office's Oct. 2003 report, Womens
Earnings, shows the pay gap is real. Women working
full-time today earn an average of 80 cents for
every dollar that men earn, even when accounting
for demographic and work-related factors such as
occupation, industry, race, marital status and job
tenure. This 20 percent earnings gap cannot be explained
due to differences in work patterns or histories.
| 2002: A study by
the National Women's Law Center, "Title
IX and Equal Opportunity in Vocational and Technical
Education: A Promise Still Owed to the Nation's
Young Women," finds pervasive sex segregation
in high school level vocational and technical programs
across the country that results in substantial wage
disparities between male and female graduates of
these programs and inferior educational opportunities
for women and girls enrolled in "traditionally
female" programs. To illustrate the resulting
wage disparities, electricians in a predominantly
male field earn a median wage of $19.29 per hour,
while the median wage for cosmetologists, in a predominantly
female field, is $8.49 per hour.
|1999: Research published by the AARP -- "The Impact of Pay Inequity, Occupational Segregation and Lifetime Work Experience on the Retirement Income of Women and Minorities" -- showed that in addition to all of its other valuable features, Social Security helps to compensate in retirement for the pay discrimination that women and people of color commonly experience while they are in the workforce.